Statistics and Genetics(SBA+EMQ) - Statistics and Genetics Module_part2

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1) Find out the positive likelihood ratio

You would like to conduct a test to see if there is a statistical difference between the

birthweight of babies born on Mondays and Fridays. Which test will be most useful?

3) . The ability of a test to identify affected individuals.

A researcher wants to measure the incidence of angular pregnancy. The following research

methodology should be used:

5) To study a rare exposure.

6) Find out the specificity of the diagnostic test

7) To compare the mean time of delivery between ventouse and forceps delivery.

A 30-year-old woman had a second trimester miscarriage at 19 weeks of gestation. The baby

was growth restricted, had polydactyly in the upper limbs and cleft lip and palate on external

examination. The postmortem examination revealed features of holoprosencephaly and

ventricular septal defect (VSD).

What is the most likely diagnosis on karyotyping?

A study to compare the care profile of patients who underwent hysterectomy either

laparoscopically or by standard open approach in tertiary center by review of case notes.

The likelihood that an individual screened positive for the condition actually has the

disease.

To determine whether forceps delivery increases chances of having pelvic floor surgery later in

life.

A study is designed to compare the age distribution in patients presenting with ectopic

pregnancy. The null hypothesis is that there is no difference in the age groups of women presenting

with ectopic pregnancy.

The appropriate statistical test is:

You are interested in finding out which type of anaesthetic is more comfortable, from a

patient's perspective, for use during a caesarean section – epidural or spinal. Which type of study

would you think is the most appropriate to help you answer your question most effectively?

A study to assess which regimen would provide better glycemic control in nulliparous pregnant

patients diagnosed with gestational diabetes: for the first four weeks, one group of primiparous

women are to be treated with metformin and insulin, the second group with metformin alone; in

week five, the treatments are switched over

A study looks to compare the birth weight of the 140 babies delivered by forceps with the 1724

delivered by SVD in a year on a labour ward.

What would be the most suitable statistical test to use in this comparison?

16) . The proportion of the screened population who have a positive result.

A drug company ran a trial for the effect of a new medication on the treatment of PIH. Following

the appropriate approval from the Regional ethics committee and consent from the women, 1000

pregnant women were randomly allocated to one of two different groups. The treatment group

received a regular single low dose of the new drug and the control group did not. The number

needed to treat (NNT) is calculated as 10.

What is meant by the number needed to treat (NNT)?

18) Find out the negative likelihood ratio

A 26-year-old woman attended the gynaecology outpatient clinic with secondary

amenorrhoea. After investigation she was diagnosed as having premature ovarian failure. She was

noted to be 150 cm tall and have a low hairline.

What is the most likely karyotype?

20) To assess whether HbA1c level is related to the birth weight in diabetic mothers.

A 25-year-old school teacher has come to see you in antenatal clinic. She is at 10 weeks of

gestation in her first pregnancy. Her partner is known to have glucose 6-phosphatase deficiency.

She is otherwise fit and healthy. She has been tested negative for the condition.

What is the risk of her child being a carrier for the same condition?

22) . To study a rare outcome.

23) Find out the sensitivity of the diagnostic test

A healthy woman attends for pre-pregnancy counselling. Her brother has cystic fibrosis. Her

husband is White British. He has been screened for cystic fibrosis and the test was negative.

What is the risk of them having a child with cystic fibrosis?

. To determine whether forceps delivery increases chances of having pelvic floor surgery later in

life.

26) To determine whether age, parity, smoking affects the birth weight.

A new serum marker, XZT, is being assessed to see if it is helpful in PE to a safe level in pregnant

women. In nonpregnant women a negative XZT has been shown to have a high negative predictive

value for PE. CTPA is used as the gold standard. e 998 pregnant women having a CTPA performed to

assess for PE have their XZT checked. Forty-eight of the women are diagnosed with PE based on

CTPA; of these, 47 have a positive XZT and one has a negative XZT. Over 950 women have no PE

diagnosed on CTPA; of these, 100 have a positive XZT and 850 have a negative XZT.

What is the negative predictive value o XZT or PE in this population o pregnant women?

The RCOG has published a new guideline on infertility. An auditable standard was identified to

assess different techniques for the evaluation of tubal function among infertile women in this

population

29) The proportion of individuals screened positive who do not actually have the condition.

30) To measure the prevalence of a disease.

You are critically appraising a diagnostic paper on the use of MRI to diagnose severe

endometriosis. The paper assesses predictive values of the test but you wish to determine

whether the test usefully changes the probability of disease.

31) Which answer best describes the likelihood ratios and interpretation of the test.

A researcher has done a comparative study between two populations with regard to the intelligence

quotient (IQ). The mean IQ for the first group is 75 and it is 80 for the second (P<0.1).
What would be the conclusion of this study?

A researcher is studying the relationship between high beta-human chorionic gona- dotropin (BhCG),

low pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A), increased nuchal translucency and the risk of

Down syndrome.

Which of the following tests can the researcher use to analyze the results?

34) Regarding statistical analysis, which of the following is true?

35) Which of the following genetic disorders is correctly linked to the transmission type?

36) . The ability of a screening test to identify unaffected individuals.

A researcher is studying the side effects of a new antihypertensive medication in two groups of

pregnant women (100 women in each group) with PIH. The first group receives the new medication

while the other receives a conventional one.

Which type of the epidemiological studies will suit this study?

38) To obtain the strongest evidence of association between exposure and outcome.

A study to assess the outcomes of small-for-gestational age neonates born in a district general

hospital over two-year period, and to record their developmental milestones at one, two and five

years.

40) . To measure the incidence of a disease.

An audit is being done where the methods of induction of labour are being compared.

The statistical test to compare two sets of observations on a single sample would be:

42) . To compare the mean time of delivery between ventouse and forceps delivery.

43) . When little is known about the magnitude of a health problem.

A drug company is undergoing a trial for a new medication for the treatment of heavy menstrual

bleeding. One thousand women are recruited; 550 women are given the new medication and the

rest are given a placebo. The mean age is 32 (SD=5) and 36 (SD=7) years for the former and the latter

group, respectively. The women s ages are normally distributed.

What is the percentage of the women whose ages range between 29 and 43 years in the placebo

group?

A study to analyze maternal and fetal outcomes for CS performed at full cervical dilation in a

tertiary level centre over the past two years.

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